Strain and Conflict
The several roles that are linked to any particular status are not always easily integrated, so an individual can feel pulled in several directions at once. Role strain is defined as incompatibility among the roles corresponding to a single status. When several roles linked to a single status make competing demands a person may not always be able to live up to social expectations. A parent, for example, may have difficulty with simultaneous responsibilities to discipline a child and to be the child's trusted confidant.
In addition, roles attached to different statuses often demand incompatible patterns of behaviour. The concept of role conflict refers to incompatibility among the roles corresponding to two or more statuses. Single parents often experience role conflict in their attempt to be both parents and bread winners - each status demands considerable time and energy. Consequently, the individual may find that both roles cannot be fully performed simultaneously.
III. Answer the following questions:
1. When do the individuals perform roles?
2. What is called a role expectation?
3. Аге role performance and role expectation the same or different notions?
4. Does a person have more roles or statuses?
5. What is the difference between role strain and role conflict?
IV. Make up disjunctive questions with special attention to intonation:
1. A role is described as the dynamic expression of a status.
2. Actual role performance usually varies from role expectation.
3. Individuals occupy many statuses at one time.
4. People perform multiple roles.
5. A person has more roles than statuses.
6. Roles attached to different statuses often demand incompatible patterns of behaviour.
the difference between "role" and "status";
the cause of "role strain";
the reason of "role conflict."
VI. Summarize the content of the text in 10 sentences.
VII. Identify a number of roles played by:
your close friend;
VIII. Read the text and give its general idea in Russian.
Dramaturgical Analysis: "The Presentation of Self"
Dramaturgical analysis is the analysis of social interaction as if it were a theatrical performance. This approach to the study of social interaction is closely associated with the work of Erving Goffman (1922-1980). Goffman agreed that people socially construct reality, but emphasized that in doing so, they make use of various elements of social structure. Thus, like a director carefully scrutinizing actors on a stage, Goffman sought to identify social structures that are used over and over again.
Dramaturgical analysis provides a fresh look at two now familiar concepts. A status is very much like a part in a play, and a role can be compared to a script that supplies dialogue and action to each of the characters. Roles are performed in countless settings that are like a stage in a theatre, and are observed by various audiences. The heart of Goffman's analysis is the process he called the presentation of self, which means the ways in which individuals, in various settings, attempt to create specific impressions in the minds of others. This process is also called impression management, and contains a number of common elements.
IX. Answer the questions:
1. What problem does the text deal with?
2. What kind of analysis is dramaturgical analysis?
3. What does "the presentation of self" mean?
4. What is the other name for it?
X. Play these roles, please:
1. You are the young mother and leader of the Ecology Committee. You want your children to grow up in a clean, traffic-free environment. You are trying to explain your position to a social worker who has come for the permission of a new traffic route in your residential area.
2. You are a sociologist. You are interviewing a married couple that decided to take a child from a foundling home. Find out about their background, and what they can offer a child. Find out why they want to adopt him, and if they are aware of the problems that may arise. Remember, this is a difficult situation for all involved, so your questions should be less direct and more tactful than usual.
3. You are interviewing a newly-married couple. Try to find out tactfully about their likes and dislikes. Give them some advice if necessary.
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