II. Прочитайте слова і визначте частини мови (дієслова, іменники,
scientific, movement, dissection, numerous, careful, prevention, resistance, really,
effective, dramatic, independent, safely, infectious, brilliant, particular, structure,
circulate, alcoholic, improvement, invention
III. Прочитайте слова і дайте їх російські еквіваленти:
Renaissance [ri'neisqns], dissection [di'sekSqn], human anatomy [ 'hHmqn q'nxtqmi], university [, jHni'vWsiti], structure [' strAkCq], army [ 'Rmi], technique [tek'nJk] , pulse [pAls], circulate [ 'sWkjuleit], artery [' Rtqri], vein [vein], initiate [I'niSIeIT], resistance [ri'zistqns], immunology [, imju'nOlqGi], alcohol [ 'xlkqhOl] , infectious [in'fekSqs], chemist [ 'kemist], microbe [' mQikroub], bacterium [bxk'tiqriqm] (pl. bacteria [bxk'tiqriq]
IV. Вивчіть нові слова і вирази:
advances [qd'vRnsiz] - досягнення, успіхи
Middle Ages [ 'midl'eiGqz] - середні століття
to dissect [di'sekt] - проводити розтин
numerous [ 'njHmqrqs] - численний
to improve [imp'rHv] - покращувати
blood [blAd] - кров
heartbeat [ 'hRtbJt] - серцебиття
to conclude [kqn'klHd] - робити висновок
to pump - качати, нагнітати
safe - безпечний
smallpox - віспа
to dull pain - притупляти біль
to administer [qd'ministq] - призначати
various [ 'vFqriqs] - різний
drug - ліки
certain [sWtn] - деякий, визначений
to invent [in'vent] - винаходити
to determine [di'tWmin] - визначати, встановлювати
V. Прочитайте і переведіть:
advances [qd'vRnsiz] - medical advances, scientific advances, technical
advances, advances in field of surgery
numerous [ 'NjHmqrqs] - numerous subjects, numerous experiments, numerous
drugs, numerous advances
blood [BlAd] - blood group, blood circulation, blood disease, blood gases, to pump
to administer [Qd'ministq] - to administer drugs, to administer treatment, to
administer diet, doctor's administrations
to determine [Di'tWmin] - to determine blood group, to determine causes of the
disease, to determine heartbeat, to determine a method of treatment
pain[Pein] - to feel pain, to dull pain, bad pain, to reduce pain, to make pain less,
VI. Від таких іменників утворіть дієслова і переведіть їх:
dissection, findings, improvement, conclusion, invention, administration, determine, resistance, prevention, operation, movement
VII. Прочитайте і переведіть словосполучення:
during the Middle Ages, during the Renaissance, the great cultural movement, across Western Europe, numerous dissections, on human anatomy, to improve surgical techniques, human beings and animals, blood circulates through the body, pulsebeat and heartbeat, to discover a safe method of treatment, the heart pumps blood, immunity to smallpox, the prevention of the disease, to dull pain during surgery, the causes of infectious diseases, certain kinds of microbes, to invent a new method
VIII. Прочитайте і переведіть словосполучення, звертаючи увагу на - ing форму в ролі іменника:
the founding of many hospitals, to record the findings, 750 drawings, dissections on human beings, to prevent diseases by building up resistance to it, effective drug in reducing the pain, progress in learning the causes of infectious diseases, a method for determining the causes of diseases
IX. Знайдіть і переведіть пропозиції, де -ing форма перекладається іменником: -
1. Swimming is very useful for our health.
2. Understanding the symptoms you can diagnose diseases.
3. He is preparing a paper on infectious diseases.
4. Do not be afraid of meeting him.
5. Vitamins are very effective in improving our health.
6. Feeling bad he could not go with us.
7. The questions were connected with the publishing of his new book.
8. Translating the text the students came across some difficulties.
9. The approaching car will take the patient to the hospital.
10. Take this medicine before sleeping.
11. Biochemistry studies the chemistry of living tissue.
12. His being at the conference was quite unexpected.
X. Задайте всі можливі питання до пропозиції:
European scientists performed many experiments to learn more about human anatomy.
XI. Задайте питання до підкресленим словами:
1. The scientists determined causes of numerous diseases.
2. Leonardo da Vinci performed many dissections.
3. He recorded his findings in drawings.
4. He made more than 750 drawings.
5. Andreas Vesalius was a physician and a professor of medicine.
6. Ambroise Pare improved surgical techniques.
7. William Harvey performed many experiments in the early 1600's.
8. Edward Jenner discovered a safe method of immunization to smallpox.
9. Immunology is the prevention of disease by building up resisrance to it.
10. Ether gas can be used to put patients to sleep during surgery.
11. Microbes are living organisms.
12. Bacteria cause particular diseases.
XII. Прочитайте і переведіть текст:
MEDICINE: HISTORY (PartII)
The chief medical advances in Europe during the Middle Ages were the founding of many hospitals and the first university medical schools. A new scientific spirit developed during the Renaissance, the great cultural movement that swept across Western Europe from 1300 to the 1600's. During the late 1400's and early 1500's the Italian artist Leonardo da Vinci performed many dissections to learn more about human anatomy. He recorded his findings in more than 750 drawings.
Andreas Vesalius a physician and professor of medicine at the University of Padua in Italy also performed numerous dissections. He used his findings to write the first scientific textbook on human anatomy, a work called "On the Structure of the Human Body" (1543).
A French army doctor named Ambroise Pare improved surgical techniques to such an extent that he is considered the father of modern surgery. The English physician William Harvey performed many experiments in the early 1600's to learn how blood circulates through the body. He performed dissections on both human beings and animals and made careful studies of the human pulsebeat and heartbeat. Harvey discovered that the blood returns to the heart through the veins.
In 1796 an English physician named Edward Jenner discovered a safe method of making people immune to smallpox. The success of the experiment initiated the science of immunology - the prevention of disease by building up resistance to it. For thousands of years physicians tried to dull pain during surgery by administering alcoholic drinks, opium, and various other drugs but no drug proved to be really effective in reducing the pain and shock of operations.
Then in the 1840's two Americans - Crawford Long and William T.G. Morton - discovered that ether gas could safely be used to put patients to sleep during surgery. Long, a physician, and Morton, a dentist, made the discovery independently. Scientists of the 1800's made dramatic progress in learning the causes of infectious diseases. Pasteur, a brilliant French chemist, proved that microbes are living organisms and that certain kinds of microbes cause disease.
Koch, a German physician, invented a method for determining which bacteria cause particular diseases.
I. Translate the following word combinations:
досягнення в галузі медицини, в середні віки, епоха Відродження, культурний рух, по анатомії людини, численні розтину, будова тіла, як циркулює кров по тілу, люди і тварини, пульс і серцебиття, серце прокачує кров по артеріях, відкрити безпечний спосіб, профілактика захворювань, намагатися притупити біль, зменшення болю, причини інфекційних захворювань, живі організми, деякі види мікробів, викликати певні хвороби
II.Match both parts of the sentences to make them complete. Translate the sentences into Russian:
III. Express your agreement or disagreement with the following statements:
1. The founding of many hospitals and the first university medical schools were
the chief advances in Europe in the 20-th century.
2. Renaissance is the great cultural movement which took place in the USA.
3. Leonardo da Vinci was a famous Italian artist.
4. He did much to learn more about microbiology.
5. Andreas Vesalius wrote the first scientific book on human anatomy.
6. Ambroise Pare, a French army doctor, is considered the father of antibiotics.
7. William Harvey learnt how blood circulated through the body.
8. Edward Jenner, an English physician, discovered a safe method of making
people immune to tuberculosis.
9. Pasteur was a brilliant French dentist.
10. Robert Koch, a German physician, invented a method for determining causes
of particular diseases.
LESSON 1 | ABOUT MYSELF | MY FAMILY | MY WORKING DAY | FOR MEDICAL STUDENTS | ENGLISH AND ITS ROLE FOR MEDICAL STUDENTS | LESSON 3 | HIPPOCRATES | Abu Ali Ibn-Sina (Avicenna) | ABU ALI IBN-SINA (AVICENNA) |