LESSON 11

  1. Lesson 1
  2. Lesson 1
  3. Lesson 1
  4. Lesson 1
  5. LESSON 1
  6. LESSON 1
  7. Lesson 1

either, neither

Text 11.Superconductivity Text 11.

Text 11.New Hope for Energy

Text 11D.Massachusetts Institute of Technology

1. .

1. We know Morse to have been a painter by profession. 2. Scientists expect lasers to solve the problem of controlled thermonuclear reaction. 3. M. Faraday supposed a beam of light to reverse its polarization as it passed through a magnetized crystal. 4. Designers expect dirigibles to be used for exploration of new territories. 5. Japanese designers believe a new ceramic engine to replace the conventional one. 6 Engineers suppose a new night vision system to enable drivers to see better after dark. 7. Scientists believe new laser devices to be widely used in medicine. 8. We know the first digital optical disks to have been produced as disks for music. 9. They believed him to be capable.

2. , .

. 1. Hundreds of radio navigation stations watch the airplanes find their destination and land safely. 2. Twice a year people see birds fly south and north, but we do not know how they find their way. 3. At the Paris Exhibition people watched the cargo airplane Ruslan carry a great amount of cargo. 4. When you stand near a working engine you feel it vibrate. 5. Making experiments with electric telegraph Morse noticed a pencil make a wavy line when connected to an electric wire. 6. Nowadays people watch on television cosmonauts work in space, Lunokhod move on the surface of the Moon and Olympic games take place on the other side of the globe.

. 1. A force applied to a body causes it to move in a straight line. 2. The unsatisfactory results of Bell's experiments forced him to change the method of testing. 3. The excellent properties of Damascus steel made metallurgists of the whole world look for the lost secret of the steel. 4. Very high temperatures often cause certain materials to break. 5. Bad weather conditions make pilots switch over to automatic coatrol.

3. , for, .

1. It was the only thing for us to do. 2. The students were waiting for the lecturer to describe the properties of a new composite material. 3. It is for you to decide which of the two methods to use. 4. It is necessary for the students to know the properties of various alloys. 5. A system of satellites is provided for people to watch the central TV program.

4. .

A. 1. Students of Cambridge are supposed to wear gowns at lectures. 2. The first pocket-size colour television sets were reported to have been developed. 3. Today's aircraft is expected to be replaced by a new model of hypersonic aircraft in a few years. 4. Intensive research on optical-electronic computer is said to be going on in a number of US companies. 5. A method for recording information on crystal by means of a laser is known to have been developed by a Russian researcher. 6. The annual output of personal computers is expected to reach millions in the near future. 7. The laser is known to be a device producing an intensive beam of light by amplifying radiation. 8. Optical technology has been found to be cost-effective. 9. The optical equivalent of a transistor is reported to have been produced.

B. 1. Our present-day life seems to be quite impossible without telephone, radio, and television. 2. Nowadays the principle of radio operation seems to be quite simple. 3. The term radar is known to be composed of the first letters of radio, detection and ranging. It happens to reflect its basic principle, that is, the location of an object at a distance. 4. About 50 per cent of Lake Baikal water proved to have been polluted since the Baikal plant has begun its work.

5. Lasers appeared to be highly useful for solving the problem of controlled thermonuclear reaction and communication. 6. A system of Earth satellites appears to have solved the problem of transmitting the central TV program to any part of the world. 7. Electricity proved to be able to travel instantly over a long piece of wire.

. 1. Dirigibles are likely to be used for taking tourists to distant and beautiful places. 2. Lasers are unlikely to be used in our everyday life soon. 3. Superconductivity is certain to bring about new discoveries in science and technology.

5. , ' .

A.: Do you know what the words either and neither mean?

B. :Yes,Ido.Eithermeans, -, - ,while neitherstands for, ().

A.: That's correct. Can you give examples?

B.: Yes I can. For example: There is a number of lecture rooms on either side of the corridor. Which of these dictionaries can be used for translating a technical article? You may use either.

A.: And in what way is either translated when it is used with or? For instance: Please, bring some dictionaries either from the library or from the reading room.

B. : Either ... or ...means ... , ... .

A.: Now let us speak about neither, it is the negative form of either, meaning ... . For instance: I was offered two books, but I took neither of them, as I did not like them.

B.: And neither connected with nor means ... , for example: These problems seemed difficult neither to my friend, nor to me.

A.: Are these words used in any other way?

B.: Yes, they may be used in short negative sentences such as: I do not like this book, said Peter. Neither do I, said Ann, which means ( ). I shall not go to the library tomorrow. He will not go either. ³ ( ).

6. , much.

1. One more present-day complicated problem to be solved is that of combining laser and thermonuclear reaction to produce a practically limitless source of energy. 2. A Japanese company is planning to install several more electronic devices on the car instrument panel. 3. The Voice Warning System is one more electronic device. 4. If you make half-hour breaks while getting ready for your exams, your brain will work much more efficiently.

5. Aerodynamics is one more problem to be taken into consideration when designing a hypersonic craft. 6. The wheel-computerized system is much more efficient than those used previously. 7. Cryogenic fuels used both as coolant and propellant make the solution of the superliner surface cooling problem much easier to solve. 8. The fact that dirigibles are much larger in size and their staying power is much longer than those of an aircraft makes them ideally suited for exploration.

7. .

the physics discoveries, discoveries that led to, the scientific advantage, advantage could well come to nation, to bring the mankind to, mercury wire, unexpected phenomenon, to return to normal state, by passing electric current, by applying magnetic field, to make a great contribution, they introduced a model, a model proved to be useful, a theory won for them the Nobel Prize, research in superconductivity, research became especially active, the achieved record of 23 K.

; ; , ; ...; ; ; 23 ; , ...; (); ; ; ; ; ; () ; ; .

8. .

prestige [pres'ti ^], nation [ 'neijen], Nobel prize [neu'bel praiz], absolute zero [' aebseluit 'zioreu], phenomenon [fi'nominen], normal, magnetic, electromagnetic, theory [' Gieri] , theorists [ 'Qierists], fundamental theory, physics, physicist, model [' modi], metallic [mi'taelik], ceramic [si'rasmik], colleagues [ 'koli: gz], laboratory, critical temperature, fabricate, extremely [iks'tri: mli], process [ 'preuses].

9. ' :

latest [ 'leitist], spectacular [spek'taekjulo], breakthrough [' breik'Gru:], compare ['], award [9'wo: d], research [ri'se: tj "], mercury [ 'me: kjuri], wire [' waia], below [bilau], 5 C [ 'faiv di'gri: z' sentigreid], completely [kam'pli: tli], return [ri'te: n], either [ 'ai5a], finally [' fainali], Zurich [ 'zjuarik], previously [' priivjasli], throughout [0ru: 'aut], liquid [' likwid], nitrogen [ 'naitradsan], lose [lu: z] , moreover [mo: 'rauva], lack [laek].

'




achievement - below adv - , benefit - , boil v - continue v - cool v - current -

discover v - ,

finally adv - introduce v - lack v - likely adv - lose v - master v - moreover adv - pass v -

present v - previously adv - ,

prominent a - ,

random a - ,

resistivity n -

return v - satisfactory a - , suddenly adv - , sufficiently adv - tend v - , wire n -


at once - , Text 11A

. , .

Superconductivity

According to the prominent scientist in this country V.L. Ginz- burg the latest world achievements in the field of superconductivity mean a revolution in technology and industry. Recent spectacular breakthroughs1in superconductors may be compared with the physics discoveries that led to electronics and nuclear power. They

are likely to bring the mankind to the threshold of a new technological age. Prestige, economic and military benefits could well come to the nation that first will master this new field of physics. Superconductors were once thought to be physically impossible. But in 1911 superconductivity was discovered by a Dutch physicist K. Onnes, who was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1913 for his low- temperature research. He found the electrical resistivity of a mercury wire to disappear suddenly when cooled below a temperature of 4 Kelvin (-269 C). Absolute zero is known to be 0 K. This discovery was a completely unexpected phenomenon. He also discovered that a superconducting material can be returned to the normal state either by passing a sufficiently large current through it or by applying a sufficiently strong magnetic field to it. But at that time there was no theory to explain this.

For almost 50 years after K. Onnes 'discovery theorists were unable to develop a fundamental theory of superconductivity. In 1950 physicists Landau and Ginzburg made a great contribution to the development of superconductivity theory. They introduced a model which proved to be useful in understanding electromagnetic properties of superconductors. Finally, in ' '- a satisfactory theory was presented by American physicists, which won for them in ' the Nobel Prize in physics. Research in superconductors became especially active since a discovery made in +1986 by IBM2scientists in Zurich. They found a metallic ceramic compound to become a superconductor at a temperature well above3the previously achieved record of 23 K.

It was difficult to believe it. However, in ' American physicist Paul Chu informed about a much more sensational discovery: he and his colleagues produced superconductivity at an unbelievable before temperature 98 in a special ceramic material. At once in all leading laboratories throughout the world superconductors of critical temperature 100 and higher (that is, above the boiling temperature of liquid nitrogen) were obtained. Thus, potential technical uses of high temperature superconductivity seemed to be possible and practical. Scientists have found a ceramic material that works at room temperature. But getting superconductors from the laboratory into production will be no easy task. While the new superconductors are easily made, their quality is often uneven. Some tend to break when produced, others lose their superconductivity within minutes or hours. All are extremely difficult to fabricate into wires. Moreover, scientists lack a full understanding of how ceramics become superconductors. This fact makes developing new substances largely a random process. This is likely to continue until theorists give a fuller explanation of how superconductivity is produced in new materials.

Notes to the Text

1. spectacular breakthroughs - , ()

2. IBM -

3. well above -

10. 11 .

1. What is this text about? 2. What is the phenomenon of superconductivity? 3. Who was the first to discover the phenomenon? 4. What scientists do you know who have worked in the field of superconductivity? 5. What materials are the best superconductors? 6. Is it possible to return superconducting materials to the normal state? 7. How can it be done? 8. In what fields of science and technology can the phenomenon of superconductivity be used?

11. , 11 . .

1. The latest achievements in superconductivity mean a revolution in technology and industry. 2. Superconductors were once thought to be physically impossible. 3. The achievements in superconductivity can not be compared with the discoveries that led to electronics and nuclear power. 4. The electrical resistivity of a mercury wire disappears when cooled below 4 K. 5. A superconducting material can not be returned to the normal state. 6. Landau and Ginzburg introduced a model which was useful in understanding electromagnetic properties of superconductors. 7. Scientists from IBM found a ceramic material that became a superconductor at a temperature of 23 K. 8. Potential technical uses of high temperature superconductivity are unlikely to be possible and practical.

12. 11 .

13. , .

1. Designers report a new manned craft to be able to submerge to the depth of 21,000 feet. A new manned craft is reported to be able to submerge to the depth of 21,000 feet. 2. We know radio navigation stations to be located at different places around the world to guide the pilots. Radio navigation stations are known to be located all over the world to guide the pilots. 3. People considered dirigibles to be too slow and unreliable, that is why they were not used for a long time. Dirigibles were considered to be slow and unreliable. 4. Experts expect the new submersible craft to move round the ocean floor like a sports car. The new submersible craft is expected to move round the ocean floor like a sports car. 5. Scientists in many countries consider propeller engines to be much more economical. Propeller engines are considered to be much more economical. 6. We know propeller planes to fly slower than jet planes, therefore, a new ventilator engine with a propeller has been built. But as propeller planes are known to fly slower than jet planes a new ventilator engine with a propeller has been built.

14. , .

1. The phenomenon of superconductivity appears to have been discovered as early as 1911. 2. Before 1911 superconductivity was assumed to be impossible. 3. Recent discoveries in superconductivity made scientists look for new conducting materials and for practical applications of the phenomenon. 4. The latest achievements in the field of superconductivity are certain to make a revolution in technology and industry. 5. Recommendations from physicists will allow the necessary measures to be taken to protect the air from pollution. 6. Lasers are sure to do some jobs better and at much lower cost than other devices. 7. M. Faraday supposed a light beam to reverse its polarisation as it passed through a magnetised crystal. 8. Superconductors are likely to find applications we do not even think of at present. 9. A Dutch physicist found a superconducting material to return to normal state when a strong magnetic field was applied. 10. Properties of materials obtained in space prove to be much better than those produced on Earth. 11. There are prospects for lasers to be used in long distance communication and for transmission of energy to space stations. 12. The electrical resistivity of a mercury wire was found to disappear when cooled to -269 C. 13. Additional radio transmitters let the pilot make his approach to an airport by watching his flight instruments. 14. There seems to be a lot of alloys and compounds that become superconductors under certain conditions.

15. , .

resistant, resist, resistance, resistor, resistivity; superconductivity, superconductive, superconductor, superconducting; theory, theorist, theoretical, theorize; physics, physicist, physical, physically; explain, explainable, explanation; store, storage, storable.

16. .

- achievable, achievement, achieve;

- electronics, electronic, electron;

- easily, easy, easier;

- satisfy, satisfactory, satisfaction;

- reality, realise, really.

17. -ward (-wards), .

toward (s), forward (s), backward (s), afterward (s), downward (s), outward (s), northward (s), southward (s), rearward (s), homeward ^), sideward (s), windward (s), upward (s).

18. .

There are a few words taken over from Latin and Greek that still retain their original plurals in English. In some cases we can use either. Formulas is seen more often than formulae. Antenna - antennae (pi). Many think that media, strata and phenomena are all singular. They are not. Data, a plural, is used both ways.

Here are some foreign singular and plural forms of words often used in English. Latin: medium (a means of mass communication) - media, nucleus ( ) - nuclei; Greek: analysis - analyses; axis - axes; crisis - crises; hypothesis - hypotheses; phenomenon - phenomena.

19. .

below - above; useful - useless; easy - difficult; field - sphere; to meet demands - to meet requirements (needs); full - complete; to use - to apply; to get - to obtain; moreover - besides; sufficient - enough; likely - unlikely; to continue - to discontinue; conductivity - nonconductivity; to vary - to change; to lead to - to result in; recent - latest; advantage - disadvantage;

low - high; believable - unbelievable; to lose - to find; tiny - huge; liquid - solid; unexpected - expected; common - ordinary.

20. ' .

1. The climate in this part of the world is the most suitable for people to live in. It is neither too hot, nor too cold. 2. Many lasers give off invisible radiation either infrared or ultraviolet. 3. There is the tropical zone on either side of the Equator. 4. It is possible to divide all countries into classes: developed and developing countries. Various criteria may be used to include a particular country in either of the two categories. 5. The numbers are either odd or even. 6. Such satellites can contain either television cameras or photographic equipment for transmitting pictures to Earth.

I see you are not a scientific person, my friend.

Why do you say that?

You do not take good care of your car. You have no water in your radiator .

I thought that I had plenty of water.

You have no oil either. You will ruin your car if you run it without oil .

Have I plenty of water in the storage battery?

No, you have not a drop.

I have not any air in my spare tire, either.

Have you any extra tubes?

No, I have not, but I have a good tube in the spare tire. I had four new tubes when I met a man who was having tire trouble. He had not an extra tube. I let him have my tubes. I suppose he was not a scientific person either. His car was in a worse condition than mine is.

How Did It All Begin?

Do you ever wonder why people do or wear, or say certain things? Why do they shake hands when they meet? Many things you say and do could have reasons that date back thousands of years.

For example, it is very strange to think that shaking hands - a friendly custom () today - was originally a means of keeping a stranger's () weapon hand where it could do no harm.

In primitive times, man never went about without some weapon of defence - usually a club (). Upon meeting a stranger a man could either stand and fight or turn away before discovering if the stranger was a friend or an enemy, or greet the stranger and possibly become friends.

But how could he be sure the stranger would be friendly and how could the stranger trust in return? There was only one way to show friendly intentions and that was for both men to lay down their weapons and hold out empty hands. For added insurance, each would reach for the other's right hand. As long as both men's hands were safely clasped, neither could harm the other. Therefore, a handshake originally was a means of self-defence.

21. 䳺 ' .

teach, fighting, wore, frozen, letting, carried on, laid down.

22. .

The ancient Greeks are known to have been great watchers of the sky and also great thinkers. As they watched the sky night after night, it was natural for them to think that the Earth stood and the stars, planets, sun and moon were moving round the earth in space. They thought the sun to be between Venus and Mars. To explain the movement of the planets, however, was very difficult. Then one day a young scientist named Copernicus at Krakow University in Poland supposed that the sun and not the Earth should be the centre of everything. He was the first to explain properly our solar system. The ancient Greeks had made the mistake of thinking that because the stars and planets seemed to move as they looked at the sky, the Earth must stand. If you sat in a train and looked out at the trees, it would be easy to understand their mistake. The trees seem to be moving backwards, but really it is the train that is moving forwards.

CONVERSATION

Exercise 1. Answer the questions.

1. What field of science studies the phenomenon of superconductivity? (Physics) 2. What can a nation have if it is the first to master this new field of science? (Prestige, scientific advantage, economic and military benefits) 3. What is superconductivity? (The loss of electrical resistivity by a material on being cooled to temperatures near absolute zero) 4. What is absolute zero? (0 Kelvin or -273 C) 5. What scientists worked in the field of superconductivity research? (Dutch physicist K. Onnes, Russian physicists L. Landau and V. Ginzburg, and a number of American scientists) 6. What materials are the best super conductors? (Ceramic materials) 7. What are the potential technical uses of superconductivity? (Nuclear research, power generation, electronics, etc.)

Exercise 2. Make a sentence out of the two parts.




1. Recent achievements in superconductivity research are

2. They may be compared with

3. Superconductivity is known to

4. While carrying out his low temperature research he

5. For 50 years after the discovery there was no

6. In the 1950s Russian and American physicists made a great contribution

7. Research in the field of superconductivity became especially active

1. fundamental theory to explain this unexpected phenomenon.

2. found the electrical resistivity of mercury to disappear when cooled to the temperature of 4 Kelvin.

3. to the development of superconductivity theory.

4. have been discovered by a Dutch physicist.

5. of great importance for science and technology.

6. since the discovery of a superconductive metallic ceramics.

7. physics discoveries that led to the development of electronics and nuclear power.




Exercise 3. Read and learn.

Professor Brown: Hello, glad to meet you, prof. Smith, have not seen

you for ages, since I left the University.

Prof. Smith: How do you do, prof. Brown, I have not expected to

see you here. Are you interested in superconductivity problems? By the way, how are you making your living? I have not heard anything about your work lately. I spent the last two years in Geneva as a member of a special UN committee.

Pr. .: I am with Bell Telephone company. It is a global

leader in electrical engineering. And I deal with new technologies.

. S .: Oh, your work is so important nowadays. Mankind needs energy for producing light, heat and transportation. This is the basis of our civilization.

Pr. .: Sure, that's so. And as the population grows, so does the demand for better quality of life. Energy consumption increases daily.

Pr. S .: But with it the threat to clean air, pure water and soil increases too. These natural resources are not inexhaustible.

Pr. .: Of course. We are developing new industrial systems to improve productivity, reducing the amount of raw materials and energy required. Our new advanced systems help to conserve energy too.

Pr. S .: In Geneva one of the problems I studied was the problem to generate, transmit and distribute energy with great efficiency. I think Doctor Carter's work in this field is the most promising. From the Agenda ( ) we have all just received you can see that Dr.Carter will speak on his work tomorrow.

Pr.B .: I have already seen this paper on the program. I will not miss () it. Have you attended the morning session?

Pr. S .: The most interesting was the discussion on the problems of the balance between the needs of mankind and the conservation of the natural resources.

Pr. .: Have you taken part in it?

Pr. S .: Certainly. I've spoken about clean and efficient technology in the field of electrical engineering.

Exercise 4. Comment on the following statement.

The teaching routine procedures ( , ) ought to be the main aim of education.

One point of view: Routine makes life and experiments easier, it saves energy; experience of past generations takes on the form of routine; routine helps us to avoid risks; thanks to routine we do not have to rediscover things; routine ensures efficiency while experimenting, it enables us to achieve a high level of predictability.

A contrary point of view: Routine kills invention and discovery, it is opposite to creativity; it is necessary to avoid routine so that the world can be changed for the better; young people ought to develop their imagination, but not learn routine; routine is the exact opposite of youthfulness; routine is boring; the best idea would be to combine routine with improvisation.

Exercise 5. Conduct a round-table discussion on Superconductivity Research.

Use texts 11 , , as a basis for the preparation of oral talks and discussion. Useful words and phrases of scientific communication are given in exercise 5 (see Lesson 10 Conversation).

Exercise 6. Read and smile.

For a long time Edison's visitors wondered () why the gate () to his garden was so difficult to open.

Once his friend said: The gate to your garden is so heavy. I have to use all my strength to open it. I can not understand this. You are such a brilliant man. You can invent something better . The gate seems to be all right, Edison answered with a smile. The fact is that it is a brilliant invention. You are laughing at me, sir! No, I am not. The gate is connected to a pump. Everybody who comes in pumps twenty litres of water out of the well ().

An absent-minded () professor was once travelling by electric train, and when the conductor came the professor could not find his ticket.

It's all right, sir, said the conductor who knew the professor very well, I'll come at the next station.

But at the next station there was the same difficulty, the professor could not find his ticket anywhere.

It's all right, sir, it does not matter ( ), said the conductor. No, no I must find the ticket, I must know where I'm going to!

Text 11B

.

Superconductivity is a state of matter that chemical elements, compounds and alloys assume on being cooled to temperatures near to absolute zero. Hence, a superconductor is a solid material that abruptly loses all resistance to the flow of electric current when cooled below a characteristic temperature. This temperature differs for different materials but generally is within the absolute zero (-273 C). Superconductors have thermal, electric and magnetic properties that differ from their properties at higher temperatures and from properties of nonsuperconductive materials.

Now hundreds of materials are known to become superconductors at low temperature. Approximately 26 of the chemical elements are superconductors. Among these are commonly known metals such as aluminium, tin, lead and mercury and several less common ones.

Most of the known superconductors are alloys or compounds.

It is possible for a compound to be superconducting even if the chemical elements constituting it are not.

Text 11C

. -.

New Hope for Energy

Recently some ceramic materials have been found to be superconductors. Superconducting ceramics are substances which can transmit electric currents with no loss of energy at temperatures much higher than conventional superconductors (that is, at the temperature of liquid nitrogen).

One use for the new superconductors would be to replace those that need the extreme cold of liquid helium - huge superconducting electromagnets used in nuclear magnetic resonance research, atomic particle acceleration and research reactors.

Other types of electromagnets made with superconductors could be used to lower the cost of electric generation and storage. Such uses may take 10 years of research, a quicker use will probably be in electronics.

Researchers now estimate that tiny but immensely powerful highspeed computers using superconductors may be three to five years away. Further off are 300 m.p.h. trains that float on magnetic cushions which now exist as prototypes but may take at least a decade to perfect. Power lines that can meet a city's electric needs with superconductor cables may be even further in the future.

Meanwhile, scientists around the world are trying to turn the new materials into useful products. Among the most notable is a micron-thin film to transmit useful amounts of electric current without losing superconductivity. The film could be used in the microscopic circuitry of advanced computers as high-speed pathway (, ') between computer chips.

Several nations are known to be very active in superconductor research. For example, the United States is spending millions of

dollars on such research, much of it for military uses: projectile accelerators, lasers, ship and submarine propulsion.

Text 11D

- .

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

MIT is an independent university located in Boston area. It was founded in +1861 by William Barton Rogers, a distinguished natural scientist, who believed professional competence to be best fostered () by the combining of teaching, research, and the application of knowledge to real-world problems. MIT held its first classes in 1865 after having delayed opening because of the Civil War. There were approximately 15 students enroled at that time.

Today MIT has about 9,700 students, a faculty (- ) of approximately 1,000 and several thousand research staff. The total teaching staff numbers more that 1,800. The institute is broadly organized into five academic Schools - Architecture and Planning, Engineering, Humanities and Social Science, Management and Science - and a large number of interdisciplinary programs, laboratories, and centers, including the Whitaker College of Health Science, Technology and Management. A unique feature of MIT is that undergraduates join with graduate students, faculty, and staff to work on research projects throughout the institute.

Most academic activities take place in a group of interconnected buildings designed to permit easy communication among the Schools and their 22 departments. Across the street from this set of buildings there are athletic fields, the student center, and many of the dormitories.

The main purpose of the academic program at MIT is to give students a sound command ( ) of basic principles, the habit of continued learning and the confidence that comes from a thorough and systematic approach to learning. This results in continued professional and personal growth, especially in today's rapidly changing world.

The two essential parts of all MIT educational programs are teaching and research. Both of these activities carried on together have greater potential than either performed alone. They provide experience in theory and experiment for both students and teaching staff.

Each student pursues a degree ( ) in one of the departments .. Undergraduate courses at MIT lead to the degree of Bachelor of Science (S.B.). The academic programs require four years of full-time study for the Bachelor of Science. Degrees are awarded on the basis of satisfactory completion of general institute and departmental requirements ( ) in each program.

There is enough flexibility (), however, to allow each student, in collaboration with the adviser, to develop an individual program in accordance with his or her own interests and preparation.

²

1. . 11 .

1. the threshold of a new technological age

2. who was awarded the Noble Prize

3. which won for them the Noble Prize

4. their quality is often uneven

. ϳ .

a. give or grant (by official decision)

b. irregular, changing

c. start, beginning

d. get by means of hard work or struggle as a result of competition

2. . memory cells, windings, coils.

The practical applications of superconductivity are limited because of the very low temperatures required. Some materials, for example lead, become almost perfect conductors at very low temperatures at the absolute zero (-273 C). However, a number of uses have been proposed.

If a current is induced by a magnetic field in a ring of superconducting material, it will continue to circulate when the magnetic field is removed. In theory this could be made use of in the memory cells of computers. Memory cells made of superconducting material could store information indefinitely. Because of the zero resistivity of the cells, the information could be retrieved quickly, as fast as 10 ~8seconds.

90 per cent of the total losses in modern transformers is due to the resistance of the windings. Transformers could be made with windings cooled to the low temperature at which superconductivity occurs. The resistance would be zero and the transformer would be almost ideal. Similarly, a 100% efficient electric motor has been proposed using the magnetic field of superconducting coils.

. ϳ .

a. find, get back

b. unlimitedly

c. spiral

d. length of wire wound in a spiral to conduct electric current

e. bring about

f. take off, away

g. the unit of computer which stores data for future use

C. , , .

D. .

Verb Noun Adjective
retrieval
... - - - removable
define ...
... resistant
apply ...
... conductive
present ...
... beliefintroduction explanatory

3. conduct, superconductivity, superconductor, superconductive.

1. induce2. remove3. indefinitely4. memory cell5. retrieve6. winding7. coil

1 .... at high temperatures was almost discovered in 1979. 2. The Russian scientists found an oxide of metal they were experimenting
with to ... electric current. Moreover, the lower the temperature, the less resistance the material had. 3. The resistance continued to fall in liquefied nitrogen. To continue the experiments, they needed liquid helium. To obtain it was quite a problem at that time. So the experiments were stopped. 4. But it was this compound of copper, lanthanum and oxygen that proved to be a ... for which the Swiss physicists were honoured with a Noble Prize in 1987. 5. Later neither efforts nor money were spared (, ) for the study of the ... materials. Moreover, there were no longer any problems with helium.

4. . 15-20 :

Superconductivity research.

. Speak about:

Latest achievements in conductivity research.



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