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There is one more advantage of solar power: not only it is unlimited, but also its use does not pollute the environment. That is why it is very important to develop devices which make it possible to transform solar power into mechanical or electric forms of power.

Text 3D

. 㳿 㳿 . -.

Non-traditional Renewable Sources of Energy

It is known that much is being done in the world today for the development of non-traditional sources of energy. Without them the Earth can not support its present population of 5 billion people and probably 8 billion people in the 21st century.

Now we are using traditional power sources, that is, oil, natural gas, coal and water power with the consumption of more than 50 billion barrels per year. It is evident that these sources are not unlimited.

That is why it is so important to use such renewable sources of energy as the sun, wind, geothermal energy and others. Research is being carried out in these fields.

One of the most promising () research is the development of power stations with direct transformation of solar energy into electricity on the basis of photo-effect. It was Russia that was the first in the world to develop and test a photoelectric battery of 32,000 volts and effective area of ??only 0.5 sq.m., which made it possible to concentrate solar radiation. This idea is now being intensively developed in many countries.

However, the efficiency of a solar power station is considerably reduced because of the limited time of its work during the year. But it is possible to improve the efficiency of solar power stations by developing different combinations of solar power stations and traditional ones - thermal, atomic and hydraulic. Today some engineers are working at the problem of developing electric power stations with the use of a thermal-chemical cycle. It will operate on products of the transformation of solar energy, whereas the solar chemical reactor uses C02and water steam of the thermal power station. The result is that we have a closed cycle.

In Kamchatka there are geothermal power stations operating on hot water-steam mixture from the depths of about a kilometre. In some projects water will be heated by the warmth of mountains at a depth of four-five km.

It is planned that plants working on the energy of the solar heat provided by the sun will be built on a larger scale.

That different wind energy plants are being developed is also well-known. These energy plants can be small (of several kilowatts) and large powerful systems.

It is important that all these advances in developing new sources of energy and improving the old ones help to solve the energy problem as a whole and they do not have negative effects on the environment.

²

1. . .

1.such as lighting

2.applications are longstanding

3.in the 19th century workshops

4.a range of appliances

5.devices are based on

6. in the case of

7.all fields of

8. human activity

. ϳ .

a. for . a number of

b. area or sphere f. things done by man

c. are built on g. electric lamps

d. for a long time h. a small factory

2. . , portable, work, generate, at present.

Although most electricity comes from power stations, power can also be generated by far smaller means. Nowadays, electricity generators can be small enough to hold in the hand. A portable generator can provide electricity no matter how far you are from the mains (). It works by turning the movement of a piston into electrical energy. Such a generator can produce a 700 watt output, enough to operate lights, television, and some domestic appliances. Larger versions provide emergency power to hospitals and factories.

. , , , :

1. method, way

2. change, transform

3. principal wire to transmit electricity into a building

4. house

5. to be of no importance

6. much, considerably

7. situation needing action as soon as possible

8. power, energy produced

9. variant, form

3. :

electricity increase consumers power use generation reduce consumption far users application provide sources energy light

We hear so much these days of local problems of electricity (1) ... Many (2) ... are taking steps to (3) ... their electricity (4) ... This is as a result of the recent (5) ... in electricity tariffs for (6) ... We

should all try to (7) ... less (8) ..., by insulating our houses, turning off the (9) ... when leaving a room and using less hot water.

We must try to develop alternative (10) ... of energy to (11) ... electricity for domestic and industrial (12) ... It is known that nuclear power comes to the consumer as electricity, which is clean and convenient form of (13) ... Although nuclear (14) ... stations are large, they can be built (15) ... from places where people live.

4. .

1.Though the capital investment, that is, the initial cost of building the nuclear power station, is high, the cost of generating electricity from a nuclear power station is relatively ....

2.There is a limited supply of fossil fuels such as oil, gas and coal on the earth, but a supply of natural uranium is ....

3.Cheap impure coal produces much more C02than ................. coal

of high quality.

4.It is evident to all that an old inefficient power station is more dangerous to the environment than a ............................... ............... power station.

5. .

Verb Noun Personal noun
... producer
operation ...
generate ... - -
... - - mover
act - ...
design ...
invent ...
consume transformation ...
... regulation ...
indicate ... ...

. 䳺 , '.

1. carry out (conduct) a. a problem

2. solve (face, work at, deal with) b. changes

3. become c. a success


d. an effect on

e. measures

7. make8. develop9. take10. achieve

f. study, research, experimen-

tal work

g. the center of, a part of

h. investments

4. suffer from5. bring about6. have

i. a program, concept, theory j. noise, pollution




7. , ' 䳺 become :

popular, universal, international, possible, important, better, worse, polluted, worried, interested in.

8. . 10-15 : Electricity as a source of energy.

. Speak about:

The main types of fuel or processes used to generate energy in our country.

REVISION OF LESSONS 1-3

1. Indefinite (Simple), Continuous, Perfect Active, Passive. 䳺- .

1. What course are you taking here? Business English? - No, I am not doing Business English yet. I am trying to improve my general English, especially conversation. 2. I liked the lecturer better after I had heard him the second time. 3. My friend will take the course in English next semester. 4. Who has finished the test? 5. We looked at him while he was dancing. 6. How many books of Shaw have you read? 7. Why have not you told them about it? 8. I shall still be studying English in two years 'time. 9. The books were taken from the library. 10. You can find the books taken from the library on the table. 11. The exams are held in June. 12.1 have been in the laboratory since 8 o'clock. 13. There were many people coming back from their work. 14. Australia is one of the five continents, but it is much smaller than the other four. 15. The light in that room is poor. Please light the candles (). 16. People speak the language of their country. 17. Every country needs good specialists for its further progress of science and technology. 18. By the year 2030 human labour in industry will have been replaced by robots. Families will have robots to do the housework.

2. .

What devices and machines using electricity

a) have become a part of our everyday life?

b) have made electricity most widely used in all fields of science, technology and industry?

c) are based on its specific properties?

3. :

radar battery generator appliances dynamo transformer

1. ... is a machine that generates electricity, steam, gas, etc. 2. A device giving information about position, movement, etc. is named .... 3. A machine for changing water and steam power into electrical energy is known as .... 4. Food mixers, toasters, modern dish-washers and a number of the most recent home devices are household .. ..

5. An apparatus to increase or decrease the voltage of an electric power supply - ... - was invented at the end of the 19th century.

6. It is known that a portable cell for supplying electricity is called ...


4. . , 1-3.

Save the Planet

Today's global economy has been formed by market, not by the principles of ecology. This has created an economy that is destroying its natural support system ( ). It is eco-economy that we need today to save the planet. An eco-economy is one that satisfies our needs without affecting the prospects of future generations to meet their needs. Therefore, it is necessary to turn our economy into in eco-economy. To build an eco-economy means to restore carbon balance, to stabilize population and water use, and to conserve forests, soils and variety of plant and animal life in the world.

Such an eco-economy will affect every side of our lives. It will change how we light our homes, what we eat, where we live, how we use our free time, and how many children we have. It will give us a world where we are a part of nature.

Building a new economy means eliminating and replacing old industries, restructuring existing ones, and creating new ones. The generation of electricity from wind is one such industry. Soon millions of turbines will be turning wind into electricity. In many countries, wind will provide both electricity and hydrogen. Together, electricity and hydrogen can meet all the energy needs of a modern society.

Another industry that will play an important part in the new economy is management of available water supply most efficiently. Irrigation technology will become more efficient. The recycling of urban waste water will become common. At present, water flows into and out of cities, carrying waste with it. In the future, water will be used again and again, never discharged (, ). As water does not lose its quality from use, there is no limit to how long it can be used, as long as () it is cleaned before reuse.

One can easily see eco-economy changes in some countries. It is known that Denmark is the eco-economy leader. It has stabilised its population, banned () the construction of coal power plants, banned the use of non-refillable drink containers, and is now getting 15 per cent of its electricity from wind. Besides, it has restructured its urban transport networks; now 32 per cent of all trips in Copenhagen are on bicycles. Denmark is still not close (near) to balancing carbon emission, but it is moving in that direction.

B. Speak about:

Your idea of ??the economy of the future.



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