RIGS AND BOATS
|| Boats come in all shapes and sizes. This page will help you put a name to some of the passing scenery.
1. PULPIT (front safety rail) 2. FORESTAY (front wire supporting mast) 3. FAIRLEAD (to pass ropes through) 4. BOW ROLLER OR STEMHEAD FITTING 5. ANCHOR WELL OR LOCKER 6. GUARD RAIL (wire running around boat) 7. CLEAT (to attach ropes to) 8. WINDLASS (winch (or anchor) 9. JACKSTAY (to clip safety harness to) 10. SPINNAKER POLE (see page 60) 11. FORE DECK 12. STANCHION 13. FENDER 14. FOREHATCH 15. INNER FORESTAY (baby stay) 16. VENTILATOR 17. LIFERAFT 18. BLOCKS (pulleys) 19. MAST STEP (bottom of mast) 20. COACHROOF 21. GRABRAIL (handrail) 22. GOOSENECK 23. WINCH 24. MAST 25. BOOM 26. KICKING STRAP (see page 56) 27. SIDE DECK 28. CHAIN PLATE 29. RIGGING SCREW OR BOTTLE SCREW 30. SHROUDS (see page 14) 31. DECK FILLER (fuel or water) 32. STEM (sharp bit between deck and water) 33. FOREFOOT (where stem and keel meet) 34. KEEL 35. SKEG 36. RUDDER 37. STERN (back) 38. DRAFT (depth of water of 'what she draws') 39. CAVITA LINE (decorative line) 40. BOW (front) 41. TOPSIDES (between water and deck) 42. BOOT TOP (painted band just above water)
| 1. DAN BUOY(emergency marker)
2. LIFE BUOY(see page 28)
3. KEDGE ANCHOR(secondary anchor)
4. PUSHPIT(rear safety rail)
5. AFTER DECK
6. DODGERS(to keep spray out)
7. STERN LOCKER
8. FAIRLEAD(to pass ropes through)
|| 9. DINGHY PAINTER(rope to tie-up dinghy)
11. BAILER(to bail out water)
13. TRANSOM(flat back of boat)
14. DINGHY OR TENDER
16. TILLER EXTENSION
|| 17. LIFE RAFT STOWAGE(not always here)
19. COCKPIT SOLE(floor)
21. COCKPIT LOCKER
22. ENGINE CONTROLS(see page 13)
23. MAIN SHEET(see page 56)
24. MAIN SHEET TRACK
|| 25. SHEET WINCH
26. WASH BOARDS(drop-in boards)
27. COMPANIONWAY(main entrance)
28. TOE RAIL OR GUNWALE
('gunnel' - top edge of hull)
29. RUBBING STRAKE(bumper)
30. JAMMERS(see page 34)
| 1 ANCHOR LOCKER, ANCHOR WELL OR CHAIN LOCKEROften where the main anchor (bower) is stowed. Anchor cable is sometimes kept here or in a separate chain locker
2. FOREWARD BULKHEAD
3. FORE CABIN, FORE PEAK OR FO'C'SLE(cabin in the bows)
4. CEILING(cabin sides)
5. SAIL LOCKER(sometimes aft)
6. PIPE COT(folding bed)
|| 7. LEE-CLOTH(stops you falling out)
9. HANGING LOCKER(wardrobe) If used for wet oilies it is called a wet locker
10. HEADS(lavatory) see page 16
11. SEACOCKS(valves to let water in and out)
|| 12. PILOT BERTH(bed)
13. MAIN SALOON(cabin)
15. SETTEE BERTH(bed that can often be converted into a double by lowering the table)
16. CABIN SOLE(floor)
17. BILGE(where the bottom of the boat joins the sides or the space under the sole)
| 1. COMPANIONWAY (entrance to cabin)
2. WASH BOARDS(drop-in boards)
3. FIRE EXTINGUISHER(see page 29)
4. FLARESNot always here (see page 31)
5. COMPANIONWAY STEPS
6. FIRE BLANKET(see page 29)
|| 7. QUARTER BERTH(bed) Sometimes a small cabin - quarter cabin or after cabin.
8. DECK HEAD(ceiling)
9. CHART TABLE(navigation area)
12. GIMBALLED STOVE(Swings with ship's movement see page 17)
|| 13. SAFETY STRAP FOR COOK
14. HALF-BULKHEADS ' GRAB RAILS
17. CABIN SOLE(floor)
|| ENGINE CONTROLS
These normally consist of the engine instrument panel together with the throttle and gear lever. This can be combined as one lever, so as you push it forward it engages ahead and then opens the throttle. Likewise the same happens in astern.
Sometimes there are separate gear and throttle levers. But, whichever system you have ALWAYS go gently from ahead to astern.
All engine instruments and controls are slightly different so make sure you understand them fully before using them.
A great deal of damage can be caused by the wrong sequence of actions being carried out.
All the lines on a boat that are fixed to the mast in some way are called the rigging. Those which move to control the sails are called the RUNNING RIGGING and those that hold the mast up are called the STANDING RIGGING.
RUNNING RIGGING is normally rope but on larger boats flexible wire is also used. STANDING RIGGING is often made of wire and on some boats can be adjusted to alter the shape of the sail by bending the mast.
|| RUNNING RIGGING
Rigging lines are usually attached to other things (such as sails) by some form of fastening called a SHACKLE.
These come in various sizes and open in a variety of ways.
(A) The most common type has a screw-in pin, which can be tightened with a slotted spanner called a SHACKLE KEY (often these are incorporated in sailor's knives).
(B) Another type simply has a 'push and turn' keyhole pin.
(C) Spring loaded SNAP SHACKLES open in several different ways some have triggers, but the most common have a pull-out pin.
The tension in the standing rigging is usually adjusted by turning a RIGGING SCREW (D). This has a left and right handed thread so each turn either tightens or loosens the rigging wire. Once adjusted, the rigging screw is locked in position by a locknut (E), split pin (F) or locking wire.
Any signs of damage or looseness in these fittings must be reported to the skipper.
The rigging wire is attached to the rigging screw with a clevis pin and split pin. These are usually taped over to stop them tearing sails.
The rigging screw is connected to the boat via some form of toggle (G) which allows for some degree of movement.
The toggle in turn is fixed to a chain plate or strong U bolt. Again any signs of wear in these components should be reported.
|| WATER - the heads
On a boat, the lavatory is called 'the heads', as in the past seamen used to use the front of the boat or 'head' as a toilet. Today, the marine W.C.'s vary quite considerably in design and operation, so, make sure you understand how to use the one on your boat.
Basically, they all suck in sea water through a seacock (valve) (A), flush the bowl and pump it out through another seacock (B) (or into a holding tank).
Only things which have passed through the body and moderate amounts of lavatory paper can be successfully flushed away.
So, women using sanitary towels should also take along a supply of disposal bags.
To prevent syphoning, the pipes carrying water to and from the lavatory rise above the water level and the seacocks are turned off at seu, when the system is not being used.
All fresh water is carried in tanks (A), which are filled from the deck (B) and the levels are checked either by a sight-tube (C) or dip stick (D).
Water gets to the sink via a footpump (E), hand pump (F) or an electric pump, whose switch often looks like a tap.
Waste water drains out through another seacock (G) or into a holding tank which can be pumped out later.
DO NOT WASTE WATER.
Bottled gas is the main fuel used I'm- cooking and can be very dangerous.
Nuniuilly, the bottle lives in a draining, cockpit locker which lets any escaping gas leak overboard.
A STRUT SEQUENCE MUST l\K USED TO STOP GAS ESCAPING
TO TURN ON
1. MAKE SURE ALL TAPS ARE CLOSED. ASK HOW THEY ALL WORK.
2. TURN ON AT THE BOTTLE (A)
3. TURN ON THE MAIN COCK (B)
4. LIGHT THE MATCH
5. TURN ON THE BURNER
6. DISPOSE OF THE MATCH SAFELY
TO TURN OFF:-
If you are going to use the stove again soon:
1. TURN OFF THE MAIN COCK (B)
2. LET THE GAS BURN OUT
3. SHUT THE BURNER TAP
If you have finished with the stove
1. TURN OFF AT THE BOTTLE
2. LET THE GAS BURN OUT OF THE SYSTEM
3. SHUT OFF THE MAIN COCK
4. SHUT OFF THE BURNER TAP
Liquid petroleum gas is heavier than air so, any small amounts that escape, sink into the bilge and might accumulate into an explosive mixture.
COMPETENT CREW | TO BEGIN WITH ... | Be tolerant. | DINGHIES | OUTBOARD SAFETY | WET WEATHER GEAR | SAFETY HARNESS | LIFEJACKETS | LEARN HOW TO USE THEM CORRECTLY, AND USE THEM FAST. | BOWLINE |