Substantivized Adjectives

  1. A. Open the brackets by putting the adjectives and adverbs into the correct form.
  3. Adjectives and Adverbs
  4. Comparison of adjectives.
  5. Complete the sentences with the comparative form of the adjectives in brackets.
  6. Degrees of comparison of adjectives
  7. E. Scan the article and find the opposite of these adjectives.

When adjectives function as nouns denoting groups of people or things they are called substantivized adjectives. They can be partially substantivized (i.e. acquiring only some of the morphological characteristics of nouns) or fully substantivized (i.e. can be used with all articles).

- abstract notions - groups of persons Sing. the sing. the beautiful, the unknown.
      pl. the rich, the blind, the old
- languages (treated as abstract uncounts) Sing. zero the, a sing. Russian; the English we use; His was a nervous, graphic English
- persons (social, political, national, etc. characteristics) treated as counts Sing. & pl. a the zero sing. & pl. an ordinary ― ordinaries a liberal ― liberals an Indian ― Indians a private ― privates
- colours (uncounts, shades - counts) Sing. & pl. zero the, a sing. & pl. grey; the grey of the earth; The trees were turning yellows and reds.
- studies and examinations Pl. zero the sing. & pl. finals, practicals; politics, phonetics, mathematics
- substances, collections of things Pl. zero the pl. (& sing.) movables, valuables, greens, chemical(s)

Note 1:When a substantivized adjective denotes a group of people (e.g. the rich, the wise, etc.), it is always in the plural. If we want to indicate a single person or a number of persons, we must add a noun.

The old man receives a pension.

The young manis fishing.

Note 2:Some adjectives denoting nationalities and ending in - (i)sh: British, English, Irish, Welsh; in -ch: Dutch, French and in -ese: Chinese, Japanese, Portuguese and the adjective Swiss are used with the definite article to form a substantivized adjective in the plural: the English, the Japanese. In other cases we should use the + the plural form: the Canadians, the Russians, the Americans.


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The Use of Articles with Abstract Nouns | The Use of Articles with Material Nouns | The Use of Articles with Predicative Nouns and Nouns in Apposition | Articles with Names of Seasons and Parts of the Day | Articles with Names of Meals | Names of Persons | Geographical Names | Calendar Items | THE ADJECTIVE | Patterns of Comparison |

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