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Theory of translation. Issues for the examination.
Translation as communication
The problem of untranslatability. (Translation through languages ??and cultures).
Machine translation
Grammatical Translation Techniques
Types of translation (T. Kazakova, V. Komissarov).
Types of translation (J. Driden).
Requests for professional translators
Generalization
Precision, adequacy and equivalence in translation.
Types, kinds, and individuality of texts as viewed from a translator s perspective.
Technical text
Topic-comment relationship as a translation challenge.
For example,
The paragraph as a unit of text composition (Translation of different types of paragraphs).
Mixed paragraph
Translation of prose fiction as distinct from translation of poetry.
Technical texts and terminology management.
Taboo words and the issue of political correctness.
Words with built-in judgment.
Classification of vocabulary from the viewpoint of translation challenges.
Semantic and pragmatic aspects of translation.
Lexical challenges in translation (plurality-singularity, generic-specific, semantic sets).
Oral interpretation (its main types).
Oral interpretation. Its main characteristics
Difficulties in the transfer of information between languages ??and cultures. (Differences in packaging of meaning components.)
Differences in the transfer of information between languages. (Differences in relationships between concepts.)
Phraseological unities
Factual and emotive meanings of words as a translation challenge.
Idiom and metaphor as a translation problem.
The problem of translating non-equivalent vocabulary.
Culture bound words
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